As you learn HTML5 and add new techniques to your toolbox, youre likely going to want to build yourself boilerplate, from which you can begin all your HTML5-based projects. We encourage this, and you may also consider using one of the many online sources that provide a basic HTML5 starting point for you.
Because browsers are usually required to support all existing content on the Web, theres no reliance on the doctype to tell them which features should be supported in a given document. In other words, the doctype alone is not going to make your pages HTML5-compliant. Its really up to the browser to do this. In fact, you can use one of those two older doctypes with new HTML5 elements on the page and the page will render the same as it would if you used the new doctype.
The next element in our markup requires a bit of background information before it can be introduced. HTML5 includes a number of new elements, such asarticleandsection, which well be covering later on. You might think this would be a major problem for older browser support for unrecognized elements, but youd be wrong. This is because the majority of browsers dont actually care what tags you use. If you had an HTML document with arecipetag (or even aziggytag) in it, and your CSS attached some styles to that element, nearly every browser would proceed as if this were totally normal, applying your styling without complaint.
This post was originally published in 2013 and was updated in April 2016.
Lets start simple, with a bare-bones HTML5 page:
Much like thelinktag discussed earlier, thescripttag does not require that you declare atypeattribute. If you ever wrote XHTML, you might remember yourscripttags looking like this:
Next up in any HTML document is thehtmlelement, which has not changed significantly with HTML5. In our example, weve included thelangattribute with a value ofen, which specifies that the document is in English. In XHTML-based syntax, youd be required to include anxmlnsattribute. In HTML5, this is no longer needed, and even thelangattribute is unnecessary for the document to validate or function correctly.
The next part of our page is theheadsection. The first line inside theheadis the one that defines the character encoding for the document. This is another element thats been simplified since XHTML and HTML4, and is an optional feature, but recommended. In the past, you may have written it like this:
In this project, however, we want to build our code from scratch and explain each piece as we go along. Of course, it would be impossible for even the most fantastical and unwieldy sample site we could dream up to includeeverynew element or technique, so well also explain some new features that dont fit into the project. This way, youll be familiar with a wide set of options when deciding how to build your HTML5 and CSS3 websites and web apps, so youll be able to use this book as a quick reference for a number of techniques.
With that basic template in place, lets now examine some of the significant parts of the markup and how these might differ from how HTML was written prior to HTML5.
So heres what we have so far, including the closing/htmltag:
To ensure that all browsers read the character encoding correctly, the entire character encoding declaration must be included somewhere within the first 512 characters of your document. It should also appear before any content-based elements (like thetitleelement that follows it in our example site).
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Of course, such a hypothetical document would fail to validate and may have accessibility problems, but it would render correctly in almost all browsersthe exception being old versions of Internet Explorer (IE). Prior to version 9, IE prevented unrecognized elements from receiving styling. These mystery elements were seen by the rendering engine as unknown elements, so you were unable to change the way they looked or behaved. This includes not only our imagined elements, but also any elements that had yet to be defined at the time those browser versions were developed. That means (you guessed it) the new HTML5 elements.
Although that long string of text at the top of our documents hasnt really hurt us (other than forcing our sites viewers to download a few extra bytes), HTML5 has done away with that indecipherable eyesore. Now all you need is this:
Louis has been involved in the web dev industry since 2000, and is a co-editor of the HTML/CSS content on SitePoint. He blogs atImpressive Websand curatesWeb Tools Weekly, a newsletter for front-end developers primarily focused on tools.
You might be more familiar with its alternative name: the HTML5 shim. Whilst there are identical code snippets out there that go by both names, well be referring to all instances as the HTML5 shiv, its original name.
The key part of this chunk of markup is the stylesheet, which is included using the customarylinkelement. There are no required attributes forlinkother thanhrefandrel. Thetypeattribute (which was common in older versions of HTML) is not necessary, nor was it ever needed to indicate the content type of the stylesheet.
The good news is, at the time of writing, most people still using a version of IE are using version 9 or higher, and very few are on version 9, so this is not a big problem for most developers anymore; however, if a big chunk of your audience is still using IE8 or earlier, youll have to take action to ensure your designs dont fall apart.
Simple, and to the point. The doctype can be written in uppercase, lowercase, or mixed case. Youll notice that the 5 is conspicuously missing from the declaration. Although the current iteration of web markup is known as HTML5, it really is just an evolution of previous HTML standardsand future specifications will simply be a development of what we have today.
titleThe HTML5 Herald/title meta name=description content=The HTML5 Herald meta name=author content=SitePoint link rel=stylesheet href=css/styles.css?v=1.0
In these lines, HTML5 barely differs from previous syntaxes. The page title (the only mandatory element inside thehead) is declared the same as it always was, and the meta tags weve included are merely optional examples to indicate where these would be placed; you could putas many validmetaelementshere as you like.
!doctype html html lang=en head meta charset=utf-8 titleThe HTML5 Herald/title meta name=description content=The HTML5 Herald meta name=author content=SitePoint link rel=stylesheet href=css/styles.css?v=1.0 !–[if lt IE 9] script src= ![endif]– /head body script src=js/scripts.js/script /body /html
HTML5 improves on this by reducing the character encodingmetatag to the bare minimum:
What follows is an excerpt fromHTML5 & CSS3 for the Real World, by Alexis Goldstein, Louis Lazaris and Estelle Weyl.
First, we have the Document Type Declaration, ordoctype. This is simply a way to tell the browseror any other parserwhat type of document its looking at. In the case of HTML files, it means the specific version and flavor of HTML. The doctype should always be the first item at the top of any HTML file. Many years ago, the doctype declaration was an ugly and hard-to-remember mess. For XHTML 1.0 Strict:
Theres much more we could write about this subject, but we want to keep you awakeso well spare you those details! For now, were content to accept this simplified declaration and move on to the next part of our document:
Weve included this so-called HTML5 shivin our markup as ascripttag surrounded by conditional comments. Conditional comments are a proprietary feature implemented in Internet Explorer in version 9 and earlier. They provide you with the ability totarget specific versions of that browser with scripts or styles. The following conditional comment is telling the browser that the enclosed markup should only appear to users viewing the page with Internet Explorer prior to version 9:
In nearly all cases,utf-8is the value youll be using in your documents. A full explanation of character encoding is beyond the scope of this chapter, and it probably wont be that interesting to you, either. Nonetheless, if you want to delve a little deeper, you can read up on the topic onW3CorWHATWG.
A few you might want to look into can be found and
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In some cases, however, (such as with the HTML5 shiv) the script mayneedto be placed in the head of your document, because you want it to take effect before the browser starts rendering the page.