List of Programming Languages in Alphabetical Order

Coding Languages

Prograph. 1983 by Acadia University. Visual language with symbolic icons.

Alma-0. Modula 2, imperative language augmented with logical programming features.

Boo. 2004. Similar to Python, for .

JScript. 1996. Microsofts dialect of ECMAScript. Similar to JavaScript, without the Java name for trademark issues. Abandonned since IE 10.

HyperTalk. 1987. By Dan Winkler at Apple. Procedural made of cards to link and assemble. Hypernext andSupercardare Hypercard-like tools.

Neko. 2005. Compile to bytecode for its own virtual machine.

COMIT. 1957. First string and list processing language

ARS++. Abstraction plus Reference plus Synthesis. New programming approach, given in the name.

. 1991 by Guido van Rossum. Scripting interpreted or compiled language.

BeanShell. 2000. Java-like scripting language.

Oz. 1991. Multi-paradigm: imperative, functional, logics, constraints, OO, distributed and concurrent.

Plankalkl. Trad: formal system for planning. 1948 by Konrad Zuse.

ATLAS. Several minor languages with this name.

Leda. 1994. Its goal is to mix imparative, functional and logic paradigms.

Pike. 1994. C-like, interpreted, dynamic, OO, with advanced data type. May be used to learn C.

Modula. 1970+ by Niklaus Wirth. Pascal (from the same author) with modules.

Orc. 2004 by University of Texas. A language for distributed and concurrent programming, working through sites. May be used for Web scripting.

RSL, Robot Scripting Language. 2002 by Microsoft. For the game Robot Battle.

Janus. 1982. By Caltech. Reversible computing.

Hobbes. 2017. Morgan Stanley (Bank). Pattern-matching and parsing oriented, the JIT interpreter JIT may be embedded in a C++ program.

BAL. Assembly language for the IBM 360.

G. 1986. Dataflow language for the LabView system, for graphical and parallel (and functional) programming. One programs visually by connecting objects.

Heron. Java-like, OO and fonctional.

AutoIt. Automation language. Originally for scripting Windows applications, now more general.

Inform. 1993. Design system and langage for interactive fiction. Followed by Inform 6 (1996) and Inform 7 (2006) based on natural language.

AmigaE. 1993. By Wouter van Oortmerssen. Language inspired by Ada, C++, Lisp.

GPSS, General Purpose Simulation System. 1972. A system is built as transactions passed from one service to another.

PL/C. 1970+. Subset of PL/1 for teaching programming.

Clipper. 1985. Compiler for dBASE III, which then got features of C and Pascal.

Io. 2002. Prototype-based inspired by Smalltalk.

ernighan. 1977. See also gawk, nawk, mawk. Interpreted, for text processing and data extraction.

Cecil. 1992 Near Modula and Objective C. (Search on the site).

ISWIM, If you See What I Mean. 1966. Not implemented by inspired functional languages.

APL. A Programming Language. 1962. By Kenneth E. Iverson.

Modula-3. 1989 by DEC et Olivetti. Modula 2 with genricc, multithreading, exceptions, garbage collector. Influenced other langage but not adopted itself.

, red hair in old English. 2006. Concurrent language by Mozilla Labs inspired of C and LLJS and improved for safety. Alternative to Go, LLVM based.

Perl. 1987 by Larry Wall. Interpreted, dynamic for scripting, its murky syntax let it called read-only language.

POV-Ray. Graphic language for the raytracer.

Lingo. Several languages: Macromedia Lingo, Lingo Allegro, Linn Lingo, Lindo Lingo.

ALGOL, ALGOrithmic Language. 1958. Followed by dALGOL 60, dALGOL W (Wirth) and thenALGOL 68. Has inspired Pascal, C and C-Like.

. 1995 by Yukihiro Matsumoto. Follows a principle of least surprise, each thing must be intuitive. Multi-paradigm, object oriented for scripting and web apps.

Joule. 1996. Concurrent and distributed, precursor of E.

Newsqueak. 1989. By Rob Pike at Bell Labs, who further will make Go, another concurrent language. Derived from Squeak, it eases to make GUIs. Inspired Alef, Limbo and Go.

ICI. 1988. C-like interpreted with garbage collector and dynamic data model for scripting.

Forth, FOuRTH. 1973. By Charles H. Moore. Stack oriented. Used to command machines including boot of computers.

Nit. 2009. Statically typed object oriented, Ruby-like.

Haskell. 1990. Functional language. Haskell 98 follows. In 2002 version a lazy functional mpiler.

Scheme. 1975 by MIT. Dialect of Lisp and ALGOL with a simple design.

POP-2. 1970. Successor of POP-1 and followed by POP-11. Functional, inspired by Lisp and ALGOL 60.

Fantom. 2005. C-like running on JVM and .NET with a common library. Evolutionary syntax, concurrency, mixins.

, Personal Home Page Hypertext Processor. 1995 by Rasmus Lerdof. PHP 5 in 2004. PHP 6 in 2007. Server-side scripting and web page generator.

rc. 1989 by Bell Labs. Plan9 command language shell, ported further to Unix.

Scratch. 2007. Educational language developed by MIT consisting of blocks to be assembled. The same principle was used for theOpenBlocksJava library.

. 2003 by Martin Odersky. To write concise code Java compatible. Implements many new concepts.

Modula-2. 1980 by Niklaus Wirth. Modula with coroutines, want to be a system and application language.

PBASIC. 1992. Version of BASIC for microcontrollers.

AppleScript. 1993. English-like scripting language.

Fortran. 1957. FORmula TRANSlator. Standard Fortran II (58), IV (61), 66, 77 (Procedural), 90, 95, 2003 (Object oriented). Language for scientific computations. Other dialects are S-Fortran, SFtran, QuickTran, LTRTran, HPF, Co-Array Fortran.

HLA, High Level Assembly. Assembler with high-level constructs.

elastiC. 1999. C-like portable, high-level object-oriented interpreted.

Cyclone. 2006. Dialect of C by ATT designed to be safer, avoiding memory leaks and pointers issues.

Elm. 2012. Functional reactive programming, compile to HTML, CSS and JavaScript.

AMPL, A Mathematical Programming Language. 1985 by Brian Kernighan and others. Modeling Language for Mathematical Programming.

Groovy. 2003. OO scripting language for Java.

FOCUS. 1975. Builds database queries.

Mercury. 1995. Functional logic programming language. Ported to C, Java, .NET.

PILOT, Programmed Instruction, Learning, or Teaching. 1968. First steps in CAI.

. 1995. James Gosling and Sun. Running on a virtual machine and so portable, is derived from C with objects. Each class is stored in one file.

Quorum. 2012. Object oriented, extensible language which aims to be clean and easy for beginners. Compile to JVM.

SAS. 1972. For statistical reports and analysis. Produces HTML or PDF documents.

Miranda. 1985 by David Turner. Functional language, has inspired Haskell.

PL/B, Programming Language for Business, formerly DATABUS. 1970+. Alternative to COBOL, compiled to bytecode.

Loci. 2014. Similar to C++ but simpler, with a garbage collector, compile to LLVM.

Lagoona. Experimental, for component-oriented programming, communicating by messages.

Afnix. 1998 Formerly Aleph. Functional language.

Mathematica. 1988. Programming language that uses algebraic notation for expressions.

. 2000. By Microsoft as an alternative to Java and derived from C++ too. It is imperative and OO language feature complete.

Deca. 2011. High-level Language for system programming. Uses LLVM.

Bistro. 1999. Smaltalk and Java like.

IMP. 1970. Algol-like. System, extensible syntaxe. Unlike Edinburgh IMP, its syntax differs from ALGOL.

Halide. 2012. By the MIT, image processing language with a compact syntax.

DRAKON. 1996. Visual language by the Russian space program, to express knowledge to accomplish a goal.

CLU. CLUster. 1975. By MIT. Made concepts that inspired Python and Ruby.

Nesl. 1993. At Carnegie Mellon. Parallel, fonctional and array-oriented.

Nu. 2007. Lisp-like, OO and interpreted.

ooc. 2009. C-like, object oriented, compiles to C.

Dylan. DYNamic LANguage. 1992 by Apple. Derived from Scheme. Fully object oriented, it was created for the Newton device.

Euler. 1966. Niklaus Wirth and Helmut Weber. Successor to Algol 60. Dynamically typed.

Noop. 2009. By Google. Java-like language designed to syntactically encourage good coding practices and discouraging bad habits. Compile to bytecode for the JVM.

Lava. 2001. OO, interpreted. Want to build a program from a treeview rather than a text editor.

Mirah. 2011. Similar to Ruby but runs on the Java virtual machine and use its API. May serve to make Android apps.

Action! Compiler design programming language, as Micro-SPL.

. 2010. For scientific computing, very fast on LLVM. Parallel, distributed. A program can modify its own code.

Moto. 1999. C-like embedded in documents such as HTML.

QuakeC. Version of C for the Quake game.

MetaL. 2001. XML based code generator.

Anubis. 2000. Functional, not ML, language.

OCaml, Objective Caml. 1996 by INRIA. ML-derived, functional and imperative language on a virtual machine. Extends Caml.

C–. 1997. Portable intermediate language aimed at compilers. Unlike LLVM, a run-time interface to add processings such as a garbage collector.

. 1995. By Brendan Eich. Dynamic, C-like, inspired by Self for prototypes. Scripting on browsers, GUI, documents, or on the server.

MIMIC. 1964. Expression-oriented simulation language for industrial designs.

Nim(formerly Nimrod). 2010. Python-like for system programming. Meta-programming, OO, compile to C, JS or binary.

IAL, International Algebraic Language

COMAL. Common Algorithmic Language. 1973. Inspired by BASIC.

Hal/S. 1968. Real-time aerospace programming language

Mortran. Derived from Fortran with syntaxic differences.

F. 2005, Microsoft. Functional, OO, inspired by OCaml, Haskell and other functional languages.

Proteus, PROcessor for TExt Easy to USe. 1988. Functional for string processing.

Most entries in the list has a link to a website or a download page for the compiler or the interpreter. For historical languages, a link to a dedicated website or a description. Additional info such as date and type of language may be added too.

R++. 1998 by Bell Labs. Rule-based version of C++.

Ada. 1983. Named after Ada Lovelace, was developped for the US Department Of Defense.

. Java implementation of Aspect oriented programming.Development

Red. 2011. Similar to Rebol, but compiled and open source from the beginning.

. 1997. The official standard for JS.

Jif. 2001. Cornell. Java with control on information access.

E. 1997. See also AmigaE. Descended of Joule, for distributed persistent computations.

Obliq. Derived from Oberon for distributed processing.

CHILL. CCITT High Level Language. 1980. Language for telecommunications. Chill 96 is object oriented and generic.

Coral66. Computer On-line Real-time Applications Language. 1964. Based on Algol 60 and Fortran, was used by the British administration.

Emacs Lisp. Scripting the code editor.

. 2011. A browser and server language designed by Google to replace JavaScript, adds classes, interfaces, mixins.

Miva Script. 1996. Proprietary, for ecommerce site creation.

ML. 1973. University of Edinburgh. Functional language inspired by ISWIM.

INTERCAL. 1972. For history, a parody language to satirize the proliferation of strange constructs in PL.

Database or query languagesSQL and other languages.

Nemerle. Named after a fictious character. 2003. Functional, OO and imperative. For .NET.

Cilk. 1994. Multi-threaded and concurrent based on C.

. 1986. By Bertrand Meyer. Designed with security in mind.

. Subset of JavaScript which runs faster. It is implemented by Mozilla.

Cayenne. Functionnal, near Haskell with Java features, and return values may depend to external components.

Haxe. 2006. Compile to JS, C++, PHP.

APT. Automatically Programmed Tool. High-level language for numerically controlled machines.

BLISS. 1970. System langage by Carnegie Mellon, supplanted by C.

Ratfiv. Pun from Ratfor (four) and Rat five. 1980+. Version of Ratfor with C-like features.

F3, Form Follow Function. 2005. Previous name for JavaFX Script, but forked under its original name.

C Shell. 1978. C-like for command-line scripts on Unix. Its successor is tcsh.

Cool. Classroom Object Oriented Language. 1996. Conçu pour montrer la construction dun compilateur.

LINC 4DL. Predecessor of EAE and AB Suite, two code generators by Unisys.

BCPL, Basic Combined Programming Language. 1966. By Martin Richards at Cambridge. Successor to CPL, inspired from BASIC, and inspired B which in turn inspired C.

CLIPS. C Language Integrated Production System. See Cool.

ActionScript. 2004. Version of ECMAScript for Flash.

Pure. 2008. Functional interpreted (through LLVM) language based on term rewriting.

are parallel structures and types dynamically constructed.

HAScript, Host Access Script par IBM. XML syntax, at command line, on JVM.

Code. Computationally-Oriented Display Environment. Visual parallel programming system.

FOIL. 1967. Computer assisted learning. Another langage with this name for music generation was released in 1979.

JADE. 1996. Pascal-like, dedicated to database management like Delphi.

Processing. 2001. C-like, for creating images and interactive animations.

EGL. 2008. Enterprise Generation Language by IBM. Based on Cross System Product created in 1981. Very high level language compiled into other languages such as COBOL, Java, etc.

OPL, Open Programming Langage. 1984. BASIC-like for Symbian OS.

. 2005. Scripting for the JavaFX interface. Dropped by Oracle, but forked under the name Visage.

Cg. C for Graphics. C-like by NVidia and Microsoft for graphic cards.

Averest. Synchronous language, replaced by Quartz.

Mary. 1970+. Similar to ALGOL 68, for low-level programming.

Blockly. 2012 by Google. Graphical language, block are moved to build an application.

Ceylon. 2012. Created by Red Hat to write collectively large programs and use structured data. Like JavaScript with classes and interfaces but runs on the JVM or Node.js. Note: Ceylan = tea, Java = coffee.

. Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. 1964. John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz. Created to enable students at the Darmount College to use computers, it became widespread with personal computers.

. 1996. By Mike Cowlishaw. Port to the JVM (and first to be so) of the Rexx scripting language used at IBM.

OpenEdge ABL. OpenEdge Advanced Business Language. 1984. English-like syntaxe and OO with DB management commands.

Escapade. 1997. Server-side programming to access databases and produce web pages.

. 2001 Object oriented and designed to be intuitive and improve productivity, it integratges reactive and imperative programming. Interprete

In addition, historical languages with no compiler, but that may have influenced design of further work are included also, provided that the author of the further language has made a verifiable reference to them.

IPL, Information Processing Language. 1956. First in list processing but replaced by Lisp.

MATLAB. 1975-1978. By Cleve Moler. The scientific and mathematical language evolved to more diverse applications.

DisCo. DIStributed CO-operation. 1992. Specification language for reactive systems.

Nickle. 2001. Numeric oriented for algorithmics.

Napier88. Named after John Napier. 1989. Experimental persistent langage.

Joss, JOHNNIAC Open Shop System. 1963. Interactive time-sharing, predecessor of MUMPS.

Markup languages and data formatsXML, XAML, XUL…

Thelist of programming languagesis comprised of all languages implemented in a compiler or an interpreter, in alphabetical order. And for recent languages​​, there is at least one widely used program written in this language.

Aldor. 1985. IBM. For mathematical computing.

PL/M, Programming Language for Microcomputers. 1972 by Gary Kildall. High-level language for Intels microprocessors.

Gams, General Algebraic Modeling System. 1976-1987. Modeling system for mathematical optimization.

ApeScript. 2005. Dynamic, interpreted, C-like.

PL/I. 1964 by IBM. Programming Language One. Procedural for numerical and industrial processing.

Agena. 2009. Inspired from dALGOL and C.

PL/0. 1976. By Niklaus Wirth, simplified version of Pascal for education.

ANI. 2010. Implicitly parallel. The project seems abandoned.

Erlang. 1986, open source in 1998. ERicsson LANguage and also from the name Agner Krarup Erlang. Based on Prolog, Smalltalk, CSP. Functional, concurrent and runs on a virtual machine (BEAM). The model based on actors solves most concurrency concerns.

BETA. C-like, Object oriented in the Simula tradition.

Clay. 2011. For generic programming.

Autocode. 1952. Several versions of this primitive historical language.

Bash. Bourne-Again shell. 1989. A command line interpreter to replace Bourne shell.

Octave. 1988. Interpreted, for numerical computation.

Q. 2003. Inspired by APL, array processing language for financial apps.

JCL, Job Control Language. For IBM mainframes.

. 2009. Created by Google, is C and Pascal-like. It is concurrent with a garbage collector, aimed mainly at web services.

Icon. 1977-79. C and Pascal-like, for string processing, is goal directed. Followed by Unicon.

M. 2008. Modeling language by Microsoft for the Oslo platform.

DiBOL, Digitals Business Oriented Language. 1970. BASIC and COBOL inspired for information systems.

Chapel, Cascade High Productivity Language. 2009 by Cray, constructor of supercomputers. Parallel programming, C-like.

K. 1993. Proprietary, for array processing, derived from APL. Kona is a open-source interpreter.

Fortress. 2007. Designed by Sun for high performance computing. Replacement to Fortran (hence the name).

. 1983. By Bjarne Stroustrup. Named C with Classes until 1983. The first standard is C++ 98 followed by C++ 11 in 2011.

J. 1990. Is a rework of APL, for mathematics and data analysis.

Racket. 1994. Lisp-like designed to be developped by the programmer.

QPL, Quantum Programming Languages. Set of languages for quantum computers.

Lucid. 1976. Programming model close to reactive programming, where instructions are equations where variables are interconnected processors.

Caml. Categorical Abstract Machine Language. 1985. Derived from ML, OCaml predecessor.

Factor. 2003. Stack-based like Forth.

IDL, Interactive Data Language. 1977. A descriptive language inspired by Fortran and C used in science.

Grap. By Brian Kernighan & Jon Bentley at Bell Labs. For typesetting graphs.

Logo. 1966-68. Lisp without parenthesis. Learn programming by moving a graphical turtle.

S. 1976. Bell Laboratories, John Chamber. Statistical language. Replaced by R.

Algae. Interpreted language for numerical analysis.

Mesa. 1970+. Palo Alto. Pascal-like, modular, inpired Modula-2 and Java. Replaced by Cedar.

Ratfor, Rational Fortran. 1975 by Brian Kernighan. Preprocessor for Fortran.

COWSEL, COntrolled Working SpacE Language. 1964. Renamed POP-1, followed by POP-2.

Programming languagesProcedural and functional languages.

CHR. 1991. Constraint Handling Rules. Used for artificial intelligence.

SASL, St. Andrews Standard Language. 1972. Implementation of ISWIM.

SAM76. 1970+. Macro language for CP/M.

JOVIAL. Jules Own Version of the International Algorithmic Language. 1960. ALGOL-like for embedded systems. (IAL was first name of ALGOL).

Jal, Just Another Language. 2003. Pascal-like language for micro-controllers.

Cedar. 1983. Palo Alto. Successor to Mesa and Pascal.

Pico. 1997. Minimalistic to learn programming concepts to students in other fields.

Objective-C. 1983. C plus Smalltalk objects, used mainly on Apples devices after being popularized on NeXT machines in 1988.

Sather, after the Jane Sather tower. 1990 by Berkeley. Based on Eiffel but evolved with new feature such as functional programming, classes, iterators.

RPL, ROM-based Procedural Language. 1984 by HP. Language for calculators similar to Forth.

LLVM bitcode. 2004. Intermediate language for compilers, or virtual machines.

Opal. (OPtimized Applicative Language). University of Berlin. Functional algebraic  language, introduced monads, then called commands.

CoffeeScript. 2009. It compiles into JavaScript and offers a more readable syntax Python-like.

Limbo. 1995. By Rob Pike & Bell Labs. Concurrent language (CSP based), for distributed applications on the Inferno OS. Successor to Alef and Newsqueak.

D. 2000. By Walter Bright. A new version of C with objects, dynamic arrays and a garbage collector.

CIL. Common Intermediate Language. Bytecode pour .NET.

RLaB. 2000. Alternative to MATHLAB with a simpler syntax.

Hack. 2014. By Facebook. Statically typed version of PHP.

Kaleidoscope. 1990. Imperative, OO, with constraints. Evolved from Smalltalk-like to ALGOL-like.

M. 2014. By Microsoft, code generator similar to JavaFX to build a website and compile to C and ASP.NET.

A. Object oriented, functional programming language, now replaced by Aldor.

Ngl, aNGeL. 2004. Extension of J, with a mathematical notation.

Euphoria. 1993. Typed interpreted language for scripting.

, Qt Modeling Language. 2009. Declarative language to design user interfaces, similar to JavaFX, forQt.

MUMPS. 1967. Massachusetts General Hospital Utility Multi-Programming System. Database oriented language.

Lua, Moon in portuguese. 1993. Scripting language originally an extension to C, now standalone.

Epigram. 2004. Concurrent, functional.

Newspeak. Named after the language imagined by Orwell. 2006. Has embedded classes.

Curry. Name of a mathematician. 1996. Functional logic, based on Haskell.

Lobster. 2013. Game programming in 3D with OpenGL in backend.

Purescript. 2011. Functional language statically typed, compile to JavaScript.

Common Lisp. 1984. Dialecte de LISP, standardis.

Nial, Nested Interactive Array Language. 1981. Functional programming notation for arrays, applied to IA.

OPS5, Official Production System 5. Rule-based, use an inference engine, written in BLISS.

Planner. 1969. To add logical processing to a procedural language. Subsets have been implemented.

DarkBASIC. 1999. Commercial PL for game creation. Compile to C++, with a BASIC scripting extension.

Delphi. 1995. Pascal deviant created by Borland, now supported by Embarcadero.

Clarion. 2011. With command for databases, eases to automates the making of report applications.

Mixal, Mix Assembly Language. For the Mix computer of Donald Knuth.

Occam. 1983. (occam-). Concurrent based on the CSP principle.

S-algol, St Andrews Algol. 1979 by University of St-Andrews (Scotland). Simplified and improved version of ALGOL-60.

Alphard. 1974. Name of the brightest star in Hydra. Pascal-like, not implemented.

B. 1969. Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson. Derived from BCPL, of which it shorten the name, predecessor of the C language.

Avail. 2014. Near the english natural language, works on a virtual machine.

Join Java. 2000. Augmented version of Java with joint-pattern.

ColdFusion. 2001. Java compatible combination of CFScript and CFML, used for dynamic web processing.

Sail. Stanford Artificial Intelligence Language. 1970. Based on an associative memory or records, events, contexts.

LYaPAS. 1964. By Academia of Sciences of Russia. Logical Language for the Representation of Synthesis Algorithms. Extension of APL.

Refal, REcursive Functions Algorithmic Language. 1968. Functional, goal-oriented pattern matching. The basic data structure is a tree.

Oberon, named after a moon of Uranus. 1986 by Niklaus Wirth. Reflective and extensible, derived from Modula-2.

Sawzall. 2003. By Rob Pike at Google to manage log data of its servers.

LLJS, Low Level JavaScript. 2012. By Mozilla, typed dialect of JavaScript near C, and compiled to JS. Replaced by Asm.js.

Actor. 1986. Programming language and also a concept for language design (actor oriented).

Lustre. 1991. For reactive systems.

Crystal. 2015. Ruby-like, compiled.

o:Xml. 2002. OO with a XML-like syntax.

Ease. 1991. Inspired by CSP and Linda.

Clojure. 2007. Lisp-like, compiles to the JVM.

CPL, Combined Programming Language. 1963. Predecessor of BCPL and itself finding inspiration in Algol 60.

Lisaac. 2003. OO based on prototypes for OS building.

Axiom. Computer Algebra System, actually a set of tools that uses the A language.

ABAP, Advanced Business Application Programming. 1983. Cobol-like programming language for SAP web application servers.

CFScript. JavaScript part of ColdFusion. See also CFML.

, REstructured eXtended eXecutor. 1979 by Mike Cowlishaw. Designed for IBM OS scripting but ported on other platforms.

Cach ObjectScript. 1997. Procedural language with database functions. Compatible with MUMPS.

Focal, FOrmula CALculator. 1968. Interpreted, for PDP-8.

F. Subset of Fortran 77 with modules and access to the file system.

Cobol. COmmon Business Oriented Language. 1959. Inspired by Flow-matic, Fortran. ANSI standards are Cobol 58, 74, 85 and 2002 object oriented.

Rebol, Relative Expression Based Object Language. 1997. Dynamic language with numerous predefined types. Version 3.0 is open source in 2012.

Ladder Logic. Visual language for programmable logic controllers in industrial control.

Esterel. 1980. INRIA. For developping complex synchronous reactive systems, with parallelism and preemption.

Charity. 1992. Functional andcategoricalprogramming language.

Objective J. 2008. Superset of JavaScript adding Smalltalk-like objects, like Ojective-C.

Actum. 2009 by Microsoft. Experimental, concurrent actor-based, internal to the firm.

R. 1993. Language and environment for statistical computation and graphics. Derived from the S language it is similar to Scheme.

Elan. 1974. For learning and teaching systematic programming as a replacement to BASIC.

Nice. 2003. OO with enhanced features and strict controls against errors.

Euclid. 1970+. By Xerox PARC lab. Pascal-like imperative for verifiable programs. Its successor is Mesa.

Gosu. 2010. Java-like running on the JVM, provides extended types.

Prolog. 1972 by Alain Colmerauer. Logic programming, in declarative form.

Dotty. 2014. New simplified version of Scala.

Moby. 2002. Experimental to combine functional with concurrency and OO.

Bourne shell. 1978. Language of commands for Unix.

List of Programming Languages in Alphabetical Order

BPEL. Web Services Business Process Execution Language. 2003. OASIS standard.

Bigwig. Descendant of MAWL, to make web services.

Fabric. 2010, Cornell. Based on Java and Jif, distributet, it provides security on data preservation and use.

Korn shell. 1983. Scripting at command line compatible with Bourne.

Objective Modula 2. 2006. Combination of Objective-C, Smalltalk and Modula 2.

Bournegol. 1977. Algol port made from C macros, used to write Bourne shell. The name could be apocrypha.

DCL. DIGITAL Command Language. ~1977. Scripting PL used on Digital computers.

Curl. CURLy bracket. 1998. Markup and programming language, reflexive OO, for building web applications. Not to be confused withcURL.

Lisp, LISt Processing. 1958 by John McCarthy. Extensible, made of a tree with perenthesis, influences many languages.

Picture. 2015 par la MIT. Probabilistic language for image recognition.

LabView. 1986. Visual language from National Instruments aimed at device control.

FP, Function Programming. 1977. John Backus. Created to support functional programming.

Crack. 2009. Scripting language intended to provide the speed of compiled program. C-like, LLVM.

Opa. 2011. Server-side or client-side, compiled to JavaScript.

, after the name of a French mathematician. 1968-71, by Nicklaus Wirth. The syntax encourage structured programming.

Algo. Algebraic programming language.

Arduino. A version of the wiring language for the open source Arduino controller.

Janus. 1990. Concurrent, constraint, arguments with two aspects, hence the name. Predecessor of Toontalk.

RPG, Report Program Generator. 1959 by IBM. Query tool extended in a programming language similar to event-driven. Main versions are RPG II, RPG III, RPG/400, RPG IV.

. 1972. Designed by Dennis Ritchie to write the code of the Unix operating system.

ChucK. 2004. Multimedia concurrent language for audio synthesis and other musical tasks.

Flow-Matic. 1954. By Grace Hopper. First language to use English words and statements.

Kotlin. 2012. By JetBrains. Statically typed language for the JVM or JavaScript. An experiment to combine all p. l. theories.

Elixir. 2012. Functional and concurrent, run on the Erlang VM (BEAM), with a clean Ruby-like syntax. An elixir program can access and test its own source code.

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