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Apart from language programming, also other queries such as programming with language, language development and language coding should be tried out.

Start a TIOBE index for databases, software configuration management systems and application frameworks.

There are lots of mails that still need to be processed. As soon as there is more time available your mail will be answered. Please be patient.

The hall of fame listing all Programming Language of the Year award winners is shown below. The award is given to the programming language that has the highest rise in ratings in a year.

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The proper way to solve this is is of course to take the sum and subtract the intersection. This will give rise to an explosion of extra queries that must be performed. Suppose a language has a grouping of 15 terms, then you have to perform 32,768 queries (all combinations of intersections). So this seems not possible either… If somebody has a solution for this, please let us know.

A: Yes, the only condition is to refer to its original source

A: If a language meets the criteria of being listed (i.e. it is Turing complete and has an own Wikipedia entry that indicates that it concerns a programming language) and it is sufficiently popular (more than 5,000 hits for +language programming for Google), then please write an e-mail .

This month the following changes have been made to the definition of the index:

The index can be used to check whether your programming skills are still up to date or to make a strategic decision about what programming language should be adopted when starting to build a new software system. The definition of the TIOBE index can be foundhere.

(Visual) FoxPro, 4th Dimension/4D, ABC, APL, AutoLISP, bc, Bourne shell, C shell, CL (OS/400), Clipper, Common Lisp, Crystal, Elixir, Elm, F, Forth, Groovy, Hack, Icon, IDL, Inform, Io, J, Korn shell, Ladder Logic, Maple, MOO, MQL4, MUMPS, NATURAL, NXT-G, OCaml, OpenEdge ABL, Oz, PL/I, PostScript, PowerShell, Q, Ring, Rust, Smalltalk, Solidity, SPARK, SPSS, Standard ML, Stata, Tcl, VBScript, Verilog, VHDL

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To see the bigger picture, please find below the positions of the top 10 programming languages of many years back. Please note that these areaveragepositions for a period of 12 months.

A: No, we did not change our methodology at that time. Google changed its methodology. They performed a general sweep action to get rid of all kinds of web sites that had been pushed up. As a consequence, there was a huge drop for languages such as Java and C++. In order to minimize such fluctuations in the future, we added two more search engines (MSN and Yahoo) a few months after this incident.

This is the top 5 of most requested changes and bugs. If you have any suggestions how to improve the index dont hesitate to send an e-mail .

Add queries for other natural languages (apart from English). The idea is to start with the Chinese search engine Baidu. This has been implemented partially and will be completed the next few months.

Some search engines allow to query pages that have been added last year. The TIOBE index should only track those recently added pages.

The complete top 50 of programming languages is listed below. This overview is published unofficially, because it could be the case that we missed a language. If you have the impression there is a programming language lacking, please notify us . Please also check theoverview of all programming languagesthat we monitor.

IMPORTANT NOTE. SQL has been added again to the TIOBE index since February 2018. The reason for this is that SQL appears to be Turing complete. As a consequence, there is no recent history for the language and thus it might seem the SQL language is rising very fast. This is not the case.

Add a list of all search term requests that have been rejected. This is to minimize the number of recurring mails about Rails, JQuery, JSP, etc.

A: Well, you can do it either way and both are wrong. If you take the sum, then you get the intersection twice. If you take the max, then you miss the difference. Which one to choose? Suppose somebody comes up with a new search term that is 10% of the original. If you take the max, nothing changes. If you take the sum then the ratings will rise 10%. So taking the sum will be an incentive for some to come up with all kinds of obscure terms for a language. Thats why we decided to take the max.

Programming language Scala has finally entered the TIOBE index top 20. This has already happened some years ago for 1 month, but may be Scala is settling now for a longer time. Scala is a functional programming language that runs on Javas JVM and thus can be used together with Java or as a substitute for Java. Since it is functional, it is less verbose and it is harder to make mistakes if compared to Java. Thats why Scala has a right to exist in the top 20. Apart from Scalas entrance in the top 20 we see a lot of other huge ups and downs. This has to do with Google re-indexing, which is quite volatile. For this we are going to implement compensation functions for the TIOBE index in the near future because we cant accept that Google hits are only half of the number in comparison to the previous month.

TIOBE checks more than 1030 million lines of software code for its customers world-wide, realtime, each day.

The TIOBE Programming Community index is an indicator of the popularity of programming languages. The index is updated once a month. The ratings are based on the number of skilled engineers world-wide, courses and third party vendors. Popular search engines such as Google, Bing, Yahoo!, Wikipedia, Amazon, YouTube and Baidu are used to calculate the ratings. It is important to note that the TIOBE index is not about thebestprogramming language or the language in whichmost lines of codehave been written.

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The following list of languages denotes 51 to 100. Since the differences are relatively small, the programming languages are only listed (in alphabetical order).

A: We spent a lot of effort to obtain all the data and keep the TIOBE index up to date. In order to compensate a bit for this, we ask a fee of 5,000 US$ for the complete data set. The data set runs from June 2001 till today. It started with 25 languages back in 2001, and now measures more than 150 languages once a month. The data are available in comma separated format. Please or more information.

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